Volume 8, No. 2, 2010

Economic Benefits of Women's Education in Sudan
by Hanaa Mahmoud Sid Ahmed, Ph.D. and Muawya A. Hussein

This paper examines the economic benefits of women's education in Susan. It argues that some parts of Sudan have experienced increased in economic benefits due more female education. It contends that more educated women have increased the value and time female now spend on economic activity by raising labor productivity. The level of employment and wages, and creating competition for women's has equally increased. Women no-longer spend a lot of time on child bearing and rearing children. This study examined the private (market) returns to women's education in the Sudan with reference to the Central Regions, particularly the Gezira State. For this purpose, a household survey was conducted to collect data on the variables of interest from a random sample withdrawn from the study population. The data has been analyzed using different statistical and econometric methods, including ordinary least squares method. Evidence has presented that women's education is economically warranted on several counts. In general, the rate of returns to women's education in urban areas is higher than in rural areas. Similarly, rates of returns to different levels of women's education is higher in urban than in rural areas. Furthermore, the rate of returns to primary education level is very small, while the rate to secondary education level is negative. It is also observed that education increases women's labor market participation considerably.

Environmental Policies and Its Social Impact in South Africa
y Robert Dibie Ph.D. and Kealeboga J. Maphunye, Ph.D.

The paper will examine the social impact of environmental policies in South Africa. It argues that the connection between sustainable development and environmental issues works in two ways. On the one hand, unmitigated growth in emission has the potential to undermine sustainable development in South Africa. It contends that the projected impact of climate change may affect water, food security, costal system, health and ecosystem and thus the social and economic lives of the citizens. On the other hand the paper argued that making development paths more sustainable can contribute to climate mitigation. The concluding section recommended some environmental policies that South Africa can adopt.

Capital Market Reform and Development in Nigeria
y R. Somoye, Ph.D., I Baker, D. Awotundun and K. Subair, Ph.D.

The paper looks into the capital market reforms and the development of the financial sector: the Nigeria's Stock Exchange experience within context of financial reforms between 1980 and 2007. Thus, with over a decade of these reforms, it is imperative to investigate the empirical relationship between the capital market and financial sector development. The study employed ordinary least square techniques to investigate basic operational indices of stock market performances, economic growth and development both for pre-reform periods (1980-1992) and post-reform periods. (1993-2007). Findings of the study show that market reforms had positive impact on the development and performance of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Marked improvement occurred in all the indices evaluated after market reform was instituted. The level of improvements was however not significant enough when compared to changes in the overall economy. Thus the contributions of the Stock Exchange to our economy remains low even after market reforms. In retrospect, the study identifies pragmatic policy options for repositioning the financial sector for enviable development.

Conflict Management and Reconciliation: The case of African Tradition
y Leonard Gadzekpo, Ph.D.

This paper examines traditional conflict management in sub-Saharan Africa, using the concept of individual and community interdependence and interconnectedness.  It argues that the individual and community concept has help people of African descent to engulf a tradition of reconciliation on a global scale. The concept has also encouraged the commitment and participation among Africans. The concept has often been incorporated, in some cases, into the conflict resolution discourse in modern African states.  Specific conflicts and innovative use of traditional reconciliation methods employed to rebuild society are discussed to gain insight into their efficacy.  Given some success in reconciliation after genocide and conflicts employing aspects of traditional African modes, can sub-Saharan African expand traditional methods in conflict resolution and reconciliation to encompass regional developments? The paper concludes that if traditional African conflict management and resolution methods have been considerably effective within ethnic groups and in modern African nation-states and help pull them from the abyss, there is therefore a possibility for all Africa expanding and deepening their use.

The Role of Higher Education in Conflict Resolution and Peace: Challenges and Prospects for African Universities
y Ernest Uwazie Ph.D.

This paper shares some perspectives on peace and conflict resolution, and explores the emergence of conflict resolution as a global growth phenomenon, including the contributions of the Center for African Peace & Conflict Resolution through alternative dispute resolution in Africa. Finally, the paper discusses the place or role of universities in peace education and conflict studies as well as the implications for African universities, particularly Nigeria. This paper recognizes the diversity of the African continent; hence any perspectives on the role of the university or higher education may be shaped by the cultural context, political environment, and economic arrangements and priorities in the respective countries. Further, this paper hopes to contribute to the ongoing discourses, both in the West and Africa, on how best to strengthen higher education to aid in Africa's development.