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When to Cite

As we said before, you do not have to cite common knowledge. You also do not have to cite your own words or ideas. However, if you use someone else's words, ideas, or information, you must cite them in your work.

Here is an example of a quote from an article:

"Though their brains are smaller than a human's, dogs have 25 times more smell receptors, and their olfactory lobes are four times bigger." (1)

Here is how a student has included this information in his paper:

A dog has a brain that is smaller than a human brain, but dogs have 25 times more smell receptors, and the area of their brain pertaining to the sense of smell is four times larger.

Question: Does this student need to cite this information?

The answer is yes.

This student paraphrased the information. When you paraphrase, you restate or reword the information. The idea or facts still do not belong to you but to the original author. So you must cite the work.

(1) Neal, Andrea. "Man's Best Friend: Sniffing Out Cancer." Saturday Evening Post, 1 July 2006, pp. 54-88.

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